Great Pyramid of Giza
Variously known as "Pyramid of Khufu" and "Pyramid of Cheops," the Great Pyramid of Giza has been the subject of much speculation, heated debate, controversy, directly contradictory expert theories and even the source of borderline group hysteria for several millennia.
Predominant theory of Giza's Great Pyramid historical development
A consensus seems to exist that Giza's Great Pyramid was erected during the Fourth Dynasty as a royal tomb for Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu. Moreover, this prevailing view apparently holds that it took two decades to build the Great Pyramid. Professional Egyptologists further concur that construction was concluded around 2560 B.C.
Widespread dispute over which way the Great Pyramid was built
Beyond the basic historical facts mentioned above, scientific and anthropological theories vary widely insofar as specific techniques employed to build the Great Pyramid. Reportedly, a vast majority of all such theories stem from a virtually universal related belief that the Great Pyramid was built by moving huge, heavy stones from a quarry, which were then dragged and lifted into place manually. Proponents cite supporting authority of casing stones fitted close together to form a smooth surface that once comprised the Great Pyramid's outermost covering, but are now visible as its underlying structural core.
Despite widely divergent primary motives and relative perspectives, all deep contemplations and even pure speculations about Giza's Great Pyramid structure and construction entertain the same basic subsumed query:
How could ancient Egyptians have constructed such a highly durable and humongous structure without today's high-tech architectural design planning tools?
Famous Greek historian Herodotus spent a large amount of time and effort to evaluate the Great Pyramid's structural design. Based on those protracted mental ponderings, Herodotus became firmly convinced that its construction took at least three decades. He further concluded that it required an estimated minimum number of 100,000 slave laborers to complete the enormous building project.
Many other commentators have made serious suggestions that ordinary humans couldn't have possibly accomplished such an impressive feat. According to this faction, alien terrestrial beings built the Great Pyramid. This far-out theory gained popularity and far greater perceived credibility in 1976, when Viking Space Probe images revealed a human-life face on the Planet Mars' Cydonia region's surface that closely resembles those on a group of Egyptian pyramids very similar to Giza's Great Pyramid.
Competing views of most probable method of Great Pyramid construction planning
Among the most mysterious aspects of the Great Pyramid's construction is its planning phase. Noted Egyptologist John Romer posits that laborers employed identical techniques evident in similar building projects by merely laying the plan out in a piecemeal fashion at full scale on nearby ground surfaces. Romer's published assessment of the Great Pyramid's construction planning approach would have also served to provide an architectural schematic with a degree of precision unattainable by any other means. Finally, he advances a personal theory that constructing the Great Pyramid of Giza spanned 14 years, rather than a prevailing 20-year estimation.
A popular competing theory developed through comprehensive empirical studies by Egyptologist Mark Lehner and several colleagues. Based on published findings from that project, researchers concluded that building the Great Pyramid of Giza required an average work crew of 14,567 members and a maximum crew of 40,000 laborers. Given a lack of pulleys, iron tools or wheels, ancient Egyptian construction workers had to devise an algorithmic method of building project management called "critical path analysis." Based on complex mathematical calculations by Lehner and company, total completion time for constructing the Great Pyramid consumed ten years.
In 2013, archaeological excavations uncovered papyrus rolls ostensibly written by parties who had direct participation in erecting the Great Pyramid's erection that outlined detailed descriptions of work efforts during the final decade or so.
Description of Giza's Great Pyramid physical features and dimensions
The Pyramid's initial height of 481 feet made it the world's tallest man-made structure for more than 3,800 years, until the Liberty Cathedral's construction. Its interior areas contain three known chambers that are located at different levels. The Great Pyramid's lowest chamber was cut into foundational bedrock upon which it rests, but was not finished. A so-called "Queen's Chamber" and "King's Chamber" are situated higher up within the Great Pyramid's interior. The primary component within the Great Pyramid's interior features is a group of structures that include two funerary temples built to honor Pharaoh Khufu, a trio of smaller pyramids constructed for Khufu's wives, an elevated connecting corridor that links those two pyramids, several small "mastaba" tombs meant for nobles and a small "satellite" pyramid.
One very rare undisputed fact about structural aspects of the Great Pyramid of Gaza is a set of absolutely astounding physical dimensions. Its structural foundation consists of four triangular sides with an incredible aggregate spatial volume of 13 acres. Moreover, all four sides have a combined length of 755.5 linear feet. By numerous accounts, the Great Pyramid is made of a primary construction material comprised of roughly 2.5 million stone blocks with an average weight ranging from two to seventy tons apiece.
Perhaps even more puzzling is the Great Pyramid of Giza's relative geographical placement. All known existing accounts consistently report that findings made from precise compass identification of the true eastern, western, southern and northern directions reveal perfect alignment of all four Great Pyramid dimensions with its corresponding true direction. That level of precision by itself is a huge mystery, given the historical era during which the pyramid's was first erected.
Still another incredibly mysterious aspect of Great Pyramid construction features is that measurements taken in relation to all other landmasses across the entire Planet Earth reveal the Great Pyramid of Giza is located at the exact center of all earthly landmarks. Many astronomy-based computations have revealed further enigmatic findings. A prime example cited is that the Great Pyramid of Giza's full base measurements reveal a base measurement of 25.052 inches, which equates to a total standard base measurement that equals 365 by U.S. standards, the exact number of days in a non-Leap year.
Next is yet another dumbfounding Great Pyramid of Giza dimensional aspect that is reported to emerge readily upon measuring its massive perimeter. When done properly, this herculean exercise is said to disclose an exact correlation with the Earth's total circumference.
Furthermore, multiplying the Great Pyramid's 35th layer by a factor of 10 will yield the exact distance between the earth and the sun. Likewise, converting aggregate measurements of the Great Pyramid's massive perimeter into inches will result in a total sum of 36,524 inches. That figure equals the same number of days that each 100-year century contains.
Finally, the well-known Pi formula can be clearly identified throughout the Great Pyramid's structural scheme by isolating its height ratio, then doubling that value by its base area space. Although this well-confirmed, much duplicated finding is widely categorized among the greatest Ancient Egyptian Mysteries, it is also properly grouped into greatest mysteries of the world.